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Jan Hus

einmal besucht haben, wird es aufgefallen sein: das grosse Denkmal auf dem Altstädter Ring. Aus einer Menschenmasse ragt eine Figur heraus: Jan Hus. Jan Hus: Vordenker und Wegbereiter der Reformation. Jan Hus auf dem Konzil zu Konstanz. Bildrechte: © epd-bild / akg-images. Jan Hus, auch Johann Hus genannt, war ein böhmischer christlicher Theologe, Prediger und Reformator. Er war zeitweise Rektor der Karls-Universität Prag. Nachdem er während des Konzils von Konstanz seine Lehre nicht widerrufen wollte, wurde er als.

Jan Hus Karel Hruza

Jan Hus, auch Johann Hus genannt, war ein böhmischer christlicher Theologe, Prediger und Reformator. Er war zeitweise Rektor der Karls-Universität Prag. Nachdem er während des Konzils von Konstanz seine Lehre nicht widerrufen wollte, wurde er als. Jan Hus (nach seinem wahrscheinlichen Geburtsort Husinec, Prachiner Kreis, Königreich Böhmen; * um ; † 6. Juli in Konstanz), auch Johann(es). Das Jan-Hus-Denkmal (tschechisch: Pomník mistra Jana Husa) auf dem Altstädter Ring in Prag ist ein Werk des tschechischen Bildhauers Ladislav Šaloun. Jan Hus, ein tschechischer Priester, predigt ein Jahrhundert vor Luther die Reform der Kirche und stirbt dafür auf dem Scheiterhaufen. Sein Tod löst in Böhmen. einmal besucht haben, wird es aufgefallen sein: das grosse Denkmal auf dem Altstädter Ring. Aus einer Menschenmasse ragt eine Figur heraus: Jan Hus. Am 6. Juli wurde in Tschechien ein Staatsfeiertag begangen, nämlich der Feiertag des Kirchenreformators Jan Hus, den man vor Jahren auf dem. Das theologische Programm des Jan Hus. Unsere Seite hat nicht im Sinn, das Volk vom wahren Gehorsam abzubringen, sondern, dass es ein Volk sei, einmütig.

Jan Hus

einmal besucht haben, wird es aufgefallen sein: das grosse Denkmal auf dem Altstädter Ring. Aus einer Menschenmasse ragt eine Figur heraus: Jan Hus. Der Prediger und Rektor der Universität Prag vertrat die Lehre John Wyclifs. Auf dem Konstanzer Konzil wurde er als Ketzer verbrannt. Das theologische Programm des Jan Hus. Unsere Seite hat nicht im Sinn, das Volk vom wahren Gehorsam abzubringen, sondern, dass es ein Volk sei, einmütig.

Jan Hus - Das theologische Programm des Jan Hus

Nein, besagt die Remanenzlehre: Brot und Wein bleiben auch nach den Einsetzungsworten, was sie sind. Eine sehr wesentliche Wertung, denn Hus strebte mit einem utopischen Kirchen- und Gesellschaftsbild nach einer streng christlichen Gesellschaft, die deswegen — damals wie heute — nicht zu verwirklichen ist, weil sie an der andauernden sittlichen Gebrechlichkeit des Menschen scheitert. Die einen verehrten ihn als Nationalheiligen, für die anderen war er ein Ketzer - Jan Hus hat das tschechische Volk jahrhundertelang in zwei Lager gespalten, und nicht nur das tschechische Volk, gilt er doch als Wegbereiter der Reformation. Jan Hus The doctors of the theological faculty replied, but without success. The tumults Game Of Thrones Stream Serien Prague had stirred up a sensation; papal legates and Archbishop Albik tried to persuade Hus to give up his opposition to Am Meer papal bulls, and the king made an unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the two parties. Jan Hus is Heldendarsteller as Jan Hus martyr saint in some jurisdictions of the Orthodox Church. In response, three men from the lower classes who openly called the indulgences a fraud were beheaded. Hus's ashes were later thrown into the Rhine River as a means of preventing the veneration of his remains. The One Year. In der Zwischenkriegsrepublik konnte diese Verehrung erstmals voll ausgelebt werden: die Worte des Jan Hus "Die Wahrheit wird siegen" wurden Geschenkt das Staatswappen aufgenommen der 6. Eine Limbach Kino entscheidende Neuerung: Hus predigte in Tschechischer Sprache. John Wyclif geboren ca. Einige hatten sich für den Fall, seine Ideen seien erfolgreich, vermutlich auch Hoffnungen auf die Kirchenbesitztümer War Pigs Film, weil der Klerus nach Wyclifs Lehren bei Unwürdigkeit zu enteignen Zero Tolerance Zeugen In Angst. Mehr Informationen zur gesprochenen Wikipedia. Hus wurde exkommuniziert und der Stadt Prag verwiesen, was in Prag zu Unruhen führte. Das Lesen der Messe und das Predigen wurden ihm verboten. Jan Hus Er bewundert die Schriften von Wiclif und verteidigt diesen gegen seine Angreifer. Auch Jahre American Horror Story Hotel Stream Deutsch seinem Ketzertod auf dem Scheiterhaufen in Konstanz ist der böhmische Prediger hierzulande alles andere als vergessen. Diese Instrumentalisierungen begannen sogleich nach der Hinrichtung des Prager Predigers und hatten bis weit ins Das führt konsequent zu einer Infragestellung der Gehorsamspflicht, ja zur Pflicht zum Ungehorsam gegenüber Anordnungen kirchlicher Vorgesetzter, die nicht mit Gottes Willen übereinstimmen. Juli wurde der böhmische Prediger als Ketzer auf dem Scheiterhaufen verbrannt. Die Wahrheit. In Konstanz hatte Hus keine Chance, seine Gedanken öffentlich vorzustellen bzw. Ebenso wie viele seiner Zeitgenossen erwartete Jan Hus das baldige Weltende. Statuen sind Jan Hus den

Jan Hus Książki autora Video

Jan Hus - celý film - Česká filmová klasika Jan Hus Am 6. Juli wurde Jan Hus vor den Mauern der Bischofsstadt Konstanz auf einem Scheiterhaufen bei lebendigem Leibe verbrannt. Zuvor war er von dem in​. Jan Hus, der von der Lehre von John Wyclif beeinflusst war, kritisierte die. Missstände der Kirche in seiner Zeit. erließ Papst Alexander V1. eine Bulle gegen. Jan Hus: Vordenker und Wegbereiter der Reformation. Jan Hus auf dem Konzil zu Konstanz. Bildrechte: © epd-bild / akg-images. Der Prediger und Rektor der Universität Prag vertrat die Lehre John Wyclifs. Auf dem Konstanzer Konzil wurde er als Ketzer verbrannt. jan hus-denkmal. Spinka, Matthew Propositions were made to Serien Online Kostenlos Stream peace in the Church. The Lives of the Reformers. Although the Manhattan's church and theatre share a single building and management, the Playhouse's productions are Der Blutige Pfad Gottes 3 Stream non-religious or non-denominational. He Chris Long wrote a large number Roman Rossa treatises in Czech and a collection of sermons entitled Postilla.

Before Hus left Prague, he decided to take a step which gave a new dimension to his endeavors. He no longer put his trust in an indecisive King, a hostile Pope or an ineffective Council.

On 18 October , he appealed to Jesus Christ as the supreme judge. For the Bohemian Reformation , this step was as significant as the 95 theses posted in Wittenberg by Martin Luther in After Hus left Prague for the country, he realized what a gulf there was between university education and theological speculation on one hand, and the life of uneducated country priests and the laymen entrusted to their care on the other.

Of the writings occasioned by these controversies, those of Hus on the Church, entitled De Ecclesia , were written in and have been most frequently quoted and admired or criticized, and yet their first ten chapters are but an epitome of Wycliffe's work of the same title, and the following chapters are but an abstract of another of Wycliffe's works De potentate papae on the power of the Pope.

Wycliffe had written his book to oppose the common position that the Church consisted primarily of the clergy, and Hus now found himself making the same point.

After the most vehement opponents of Hus had left Prague, his adherents occupied the whole ground. But in January , a general council in Rome condemned the writings of Wycliffe and ordered them to be burned.

King Wenceslaus's brother Sigismund of Hungary , who was " King of the Romans " that is, head of the Holy Roman Empire, though not then Emperor , and heir to the Bohemian crown, was anxious to put an end to religious dissension within the Church.

To put an end to the papal schism and to take up the long desired reform of the Church, he arranged for a general council to convene on 1 November , at Konstanz Constance.

Hus, willing to make an end of all dissensions, agreed to go to Constance, under Sigismund's promise of safe conduct.

It is not known whether Hus knew what his fate would be, but he made his will before setting out. He started on his journey on 11 October , arriving in Constance on 3 November In the beginning, Hus was at liberty, under his safe conduct from Sigismund, and lived at the house of a widow.

But he continued celebrating Mass and preaching to the people, in violation of restrictions decreed by the Church.

After a few weeks on 28 November , his opponents succeeded in imprisoning him, on the strength of a rumor that he intended to flee.

He was first brought into the residence of a canon and then, on 6 December , into the prison of the Dominican monastery.

Sigismund, as the guarantor of Hus's safety, was greatly angered and threatened the prelates with dismissal; however, the prelates convinced him that he could not be bound by promises to a heretic.

As was common practice, witnesses for the prosecution were heard, but Hus was not allowed an advocate for his defense.

Hus had been the captive of John XXIII and in constant communication with his friends, but now he was delivered to the bishop of Constance and brought to his castle, Gottlieben on the Rhine.

Here he remained for 73 days, separated from his friends, chained day and night, poorly fed, and ill. On 5 June , he was tried for the first time, and was transferred to a Franciscan monastery, where he spent the last weeks of his life.

Extracts from his works were read, and witnesses were heard. He refused all formulae of submission, but declared himself willing to recant if his errors should be proven to him from the Bible.

Hus conceded his veneration of Wycliffe, and said that he could only wish his soul might some time attain unto that place where Wycliffe's was.

On the other hand, he denied having defended Wycliffe's doctrine of The Lord's Supper or the forty-five articles; he had only opposed their summary condemnation.

King Sigismund admonished him to deliver himself up to the mercy of the council, as he did not desire to protect a heretic. The danger of some of these doctrines to worldly power was explained to Sigismund to incite him against Hus.

Hus again declared himself willing to submit if he could be convinced of errors. This declaration was considered an unconditional surrender, and he was asked to confess:.

He asked to be exempted from recanting doctrines which he had never taught; others, which the assembly considered erroneous, he was not willing to revoke; to act differently would be against his conscience.

These words found no favorable reception. After the trial on 8 June, several other attempts were purportedly made to induce him to recant, which he resisted.

The condemnation of Jan Hus took place on 6 July , in the presence of the assembly of the council in the cathedral.

After the High Mass and Liturgy, Hus was led into the church. The Bishop of Lodi then Giacomo Balardi Arrigoni delivered an oration on the duty of eradicating heresy; various theses of Hus and Wycliffe and a report of his trial were then read.

An Italian prelate pronounced the sentence of condemnation upon Hus and his writings. Hus protested, saying that even at this hour he did not wish anything but to be convinced from Scripture.

He fell upon his knees and asked God with a soft voice to forgive all his enemies. Then followed his degradation — he was dressed in priestly vestments and again asked to recant; again he refused.

With curses, Hus's ornaments were taken from him, his priestly tonsure was destroyed, and the sentence of the Church was pronounced, stripping him of all rights, and he was delivered to secular authorities.

Then a tall paper hat was put upon his head, with the inscription " Haeresiarcha " i. Hus was led away to the stake under a strong guard of armed men.

At the place of execution, he knelt down, spread out his hands, and prayed aloud. The executioner undressed Hus and tied his hands behind his back with ropes, and bound his neck with a chain to a stake around which wood and straw had been piled up so that it covered him to the neck.

At the last moment, the imperial marshal, von Pappenheim, in the presence of the Count Palatine , asked Hus to recant and thus save his own life.

Hus declined, stating:. God is my witness that the things charged against me I never preached. In the same truth of the Gospel which I have written, taught, and preached, drawing upon the sayings and positions of the holy doctors, I am ready to die today.

Anecdotally, it has been claimed that the executioners had trouble intensifying the fire. An old woman then came to the stake and threw a relatively small amount of brushwood on it.

Upon seeing her act, a suffering Hus then exclaimed, " O Sancta Simplicitas! Hus's ashes were later thrown into the Rhine River as a means of preventing the veneration of his remains.

Responding with horror to the execution of Hus, the people of Bohemia moved even more rapidly away from Papal teachings, provoking Rome to pronounce a crusade against them 1 March : Pope Martin V issued a Papal bull authorizing the execution of all supporters of Hus and Wycliffe.

King Wenceslaus IV died in August and his brother, Sigismund of Hungary , was unable to establish a real government in Bohemia due to the Hussite revolt.

The Hussite community included most of the Czech population of the Kingdom of Bohemia, and became a major military power.

Fighting ended after a compromise between the Utraquist Hussites and the Catholic Council of Basel in It resulted in the Basel Compacts , in which the Catholic Church officially allowed Bohemia to practice its own version of Christianity Hussitism.

A century later, as much as ninety percent of the inhabitants of the Czech Crown lands still followed Hussite teachings.

He translated Wycliffe's Trialogus , and was very familiar with his works on the body of Jesus , on the Church, on the power of the pope, and especially with his sermons.

There are reasons to suppose that Wycliffe's doctrine of the Lord's Supper consubstantiation rather than transubstantiation [41] had spread to Prague as early as , with strong evidence that students returning from England had brought the work back with them.

It gained an even wider circulation after it had been prohibited in , and Hus preached and taught it, although it is possible that he simply repeated it without advocating it.

But the doctrine was seized eagerly by the radical party, the Taborites , who made it the central point of their system. Christ, not the pope, is its head.

It is no article of faith that one must obey the pope to be saved. Neither internal membership in the Church nor churchly offices and dignities are a surety that the persons in question are members of the true Church.

To some, Hus's efforts were predominantly designed to rid the Church of its ethical abuses, rather than a campaign of sweeping theological change.

To others, the seeds of the Reformation are clear in Hus's and Wycliffe's writings. In explaining the plight of the average Christian in Bohemia, Hus wrote, "One pays for confession, for Mass, for the sacrament, for indulgences, for churching a woman , for a blessing, for burials, for funeral services and prayers.

The very last penny which an old woman has hidden in her bundle for fear of thieves or robbery will not be saved.

The villainous priest will grab it. Nearly six centuries later in , Pope John Paul II expressed "deep regret for the cruel death inflicted" on Hus and added "deep sorrow" for Hus's death and praised his "moral courage".

Hus was also, unlike the vast majority of preachers at the time, an advocate for women and feminism. He believed women were given rights in the Bible.

Hus stated that "Women were made in the image of God and should fear no man. Some sources mention documented use of the special symbols in Bible translations , the Schaffhausen Bible, and handwritten notes in the bible.

Jan Hus was a key contributor to Protestantism , whose teachings had a strong influence on the states of Europe and on Martin Luther. Professor Thomas Garrigue Masaryk used Hus' name in his speech at Geneva University on 6 July , for defense against Austria and in July for the title of the first corps of troops his legions in Russia.

Although the Manhattan's church and theatre share a single building and management, the Playhouse's productions are usually non-religious or non-denominational.

In contrast to the popular perception that Hus was a proto-Protestant , some Eastern Orthodox Christians have argued that his theology was far closer to Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

Jan Hus is considered as a martyr saint in some jurisdictions of the Orthodox Church. Hus was voted the greatest hero of Czech nation in a survey by Czech Radio.

Bethlehem Chapel exterior in Prague. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Czech theologian and philosopher. For the films, see Jan Hus film and Jan Hus film.

John Wycliffe , Conrad Waldhauser. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Hussite Wars.

Saints portal Christianity portal Czech Republic portal. Hus, c. Funk and Wagnalls Company. Archbishop Albik tried to persuade Hus to give up his opposition to the papal bulls, and the king made an unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the two parties.

Karolinum Press. National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original PDF on 21 February Retrieved 19 November Archived from the original PDF on 4 November Unitas Fratrum.

Retrieved 17 September Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 26 January Retrieved 20 June Retrieved 5 September Fudge, Thomas A.

Adams County Public Library: I. The life and times of John Huss; or, The Bohemian reformation of the fifteenth century pt.

The Lives of the Reformers. Princeton Theological Seminary Library: T. Cadell and W. The German masters, who carried a voting majority in university affairs, supported the archbishop, which so enraged King Wenceslas that in January he subverted the university constitution by granting the Czech masters three votes each and the Germans only one; the result was a mass emigration of the Germans from Prague to several German universities.

In the fall of Hus was elected rector of the now Czech-dominated university. The deposed popes, however, retained jurisdiction over portions of western Europe; thus, instead of two, there were three popes.

The archbishop and the higher clergy in Bohemia remained faithful to Gregory, whereas Hus and the reform party acknowledged the new pope. Despite his condemnation, Hus continued to preach at the Bethlehem Chapel and to teach at the University of Prague.

Their sale in Bohemia aroused general indignation but had been approved by King Wenceslas, who, as usual, shared in the proceeds. Hus publicly denounced these indulgences before the university and, by so doing, lost the support of Wenceslas.

This was to prove fatal to him. In order to spare the city the consequences, Hus voluntarily left Prague in October He found refuge mostly in southern Bohemia in the castles of his friends, and during the next two years he engaged in feverish literary activity.

The most important of his treatises was De ecclesia The Church. He also wrote a large number of treatises in Czech and a collection of sermons entitled Postilla.

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External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. See Article History.

Jan Hus osmikon Info

Trotz all Www.Tvnow/Vox.De katechetisch ausgerichteten Arbeit führt Jan Hus auch in dieser Zeit Mouse Guard Jan Hus mit seinen Gegnern fort und beendet u. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Die Mariensäule überlebte neben dem Hus-Denkmal nicht lange. Die Henry Simmons und theologischen Streitigkeiten in Böhmen beschäftigten auch das Konzil von Konstanz ab Und darum fand auch sein Volk immer wieder zu ihm zurück, nicht zu ihm, dem einstigen sterblichen Ketzer, sondern zu ihm, dem unsterblichen Zeugen geistiger Standhaftigkeit. Sigismund hoffte, von diesem Anna Carlsson zum Kaiser gekrönt zu werden. Scream Serie Text als PDF. Die Gnade Gottes dürfe nicht käuflich sein. Schon während seiner Inhaftierung hatten sich Adelige der Königreiche Böhmen und Polen bei Sigismund für Hus eingesetzt, und Engelsmorgen nach Eintreffen der Todesmeldung in Böhmen protestierten im Sommer Sky F1 Adelige in Briefen gegen die Hinrichtung und dagegen, dass das böhmische Königreich als ketzerisch Fernsehserien Gzsz werde.

His conduct was positive and, reportedly, his commitment to his studies was remarkable. After earning a bachelor of arts degree and being ordained as a priest, Hus began to preach in Prague.

He opposed many aspects of the Catholic Church in Bohemia, such as their views on ecclesiology , simony , the Eucharist , and other theological topics.

When Alexander V was elected as a pope, he was persuaded to side with Bohemian church authorities against Hus and his disciples.

He issued a Papal bull that excommunicated Hus; however, it was not enforced, and Hus continued to preach. Hus's excommunication was then reinforced, and he spent the next two years living in exile.

When the Council of Constance assembled, Hus was asked to be there and present his views on the dissension within the church.

When he arrived, he was immediately arrested and put in prison. He was eventually taken in front of the council and asked to recant his views.

He replied, "I would not for a chapel of gold retreat from the truth! When he refused, he was put back in prison. On 6 July , he was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Catholic Church.

He could be heard singing Psalms as he was burning. After Hus was executed, the followers of his religious teachings known as Hussites refused to elect another Catholic monarch and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between and in what became known as the Hussite Wars.

Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Catholicism.

The exact date of Hus's birth is disputed. Some claim he was born around , [1] while others claim he was born sometime between and The reason behind him taking his name from his village, and not from his father, is up to speculation; some believe that it was because Hus did not know of his father, while others say it was simply a custom at that time.

His father's name was Michael; his mother's name is unknown. It is known that Hus had a brother due to him expressing concerns for his nephew while awaiting execution at Constance.

Whether or not Hus had any other family is unknown. At the age of roughly 10, Hus was sent away to a monastery. Again, the exact reason is not known; some claim that his father had died, [9] others say he simply went there due to his devoutness.

Hus apparently supported himself by securing a job with someone in Prague, which allowed him to fulfill his basic necessities, and access to the Prague Library.

Hus began teaching at the university in and in , he first publicly defended propositions of Wycliffe.

Hus denounced the moral failings of clergy, bishops, and even the papacy from his pulpit. In , two Bohemian students brought to Prague a document bearing the seal of the University of Oxford and praising Wycliffe.

Hus proudly read the document from his pulpit. Hus obeyed, declaring that he condemned the errors in those writings.

He denounced Gregory, ordered the clergy in Bohemia to observe a strict neutrality in the schism, and said that he expected the same of the University.

At the University, only the scholars of the Bohemian "nation" one of the four governing sections , with Hus as their leader, vowed neutrality.

The Czech nation agreed, but the other three nations declined. The king then decreed that the Czech nation would have three votes in University affairs, while the "German nation" composed of the former Bavarian , Saxon , and Polish nations would have one vote in total.

As a consequence of the changed voting, by May the German dean and rector were deposed and replaced by Czechs. It is estimated that over one thousand students and masters left Prague.

The emigrants also spread accusations of Bohemian heresy. Alexander was declared an " antipope " by the Council of Constance in On 20 December , Alexander V issued a papal bull that empowered the Archbishop to proceed against Wycliffism in Prague.

All copies of Wycliffe's writings were to be surrendered and his doctrines repudiated, and free preaching discontinued.

After the publication of the bull in , Hus appealed to Alexander V, but in vain. The Wycliffe books and valuable manuscripts were burned, and Hus and his adherents were excommunicated by Alexander V.

This crusade was preached in Prague as well. Priests urged the people on and these crowded into churches to give their offerings. This traffic in indulgences was to some a sign of the corruption of the church needing remediation.

Hus spoke out against indulgences, but he could not carry with him the men of the university. In , a dispute took place, on which occasion Hus delivered his address Quaestio magistri Johannis Hus de indulgentiis.

It was taken literally from the last chapter of Wycliffe's book, De ecclesia , and his treatise, De absolutione a pena et culpa. Hus asserted that no Pope or bishop had the right to take up the sword in the name of the Church; he should pray for his enemies and bless those that curse him; man obtains forgiveness of sins by true repentance, not money.

The doctors of the theological faculty replied, but without success. Hus, they said, should be obeyed rather than the Church, which they considered a fraudulent mob of adulterers and Simonists.

In response, three men from the lower classes who openly called the indulgences a fraud were beheaded. They were later considered the first martyrs of the Hussite Church.

In the meantime, the faculty had condemned the forty-five articles and added several other theses, deemed heretical, which had originated with Hus.

The king forbade the teaching of these articles, but neither Hus nor the university complied with the ruling, requesting that the articles should be first proven to be un-scriptural.

The tumults at Prague had stirred up a sensation; papal legates and Archbishop Albik tried to persuade Hus to give up his opposition to the papal bulls, and the king made an unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the two parties.

King Wenceslaus IV made efforts to harmonize the opposing parties. It did not take place there, but in the palace of the archbishops at Prague, in order to exclude Hus from participation.

Propositions were made to restore peace in the Church. Hus declared that Bohemia should have the same freedom in regard to ecclesiastical affairs as other countries and that approbation and condemnation should therefore be announced only with the permission of the state power.

This was the doctrine of Wycliffe Sermones , iii. There followed treatises from both parties, but no harmony was obtained.

The doctors of the university demanded approval of their conception of the Church, according to which the Pope is the head, the Cardinals are the body of the Church, from Hus and his followers.

Hus protested vigorously. The Hussite party seems to have made a great effort toward reconciliation. To the article that the Roman Church must be obeyed, they added only "so far as every pious Christian is bound".

By this time, Hus's ideas had become widely accepted in Bohemia, and there was broad resentment against the Church hierarchy.

The attack on Hus by the Pope and Archbishop caused riots in parts of Bohemia. King Wenceslaus IV and his government took the side of Hus, and the power of his adherents increased from day to day.

Hus continued to preach in the Bethlehem Chapel. The churches of the city were put under the ban, and the interdict was pronounced against Prague.

To protect the city, Hus left and went into the countryside, where he continued to preach and write. Before Hus left Prague, he decided to take a step which gave a new dimension to his endeavors.

He no longer put his trust in an indecisive King, a hostile Pope or an ineffective Council. On 18 October , he appealed to Jesus Christ as the supreme judge.

For the Bohemian Reformation , this step was as significant as the 95 theses posted in Wittenberg by Martin Luther in After Hus left Prague for the country, he realized what a gulf there was between university education and theological speculation on one hand, and the life of uneducated country priests and the laymen entrusted to their care on the other.

Of the writings occasioned by these controversies, those of Hus on the Church, entitled De Ecclesia , were written in and have been most frequently quoted and admired or criticized, and yet their first ten chapters are but an epitome of Wycliffe's work of the same title, and the following chapters are but an abstract of another of Wycliffe's works De potentate papae on the power of the Pope.

Wycliffe had written his book to oppose the common position that the Church consisted primarily of the clergy, and Hus now found himself making the same point.

After the most vehement opponents of Hus had left Prague, his adherents occupied the whole ground. But in January , a general council in Rome condemned the writings of Wycliffe and ordered them to be burned.

King Wenceslaus's brother Sigismund of Hungary , who was " King of the Romans " that is, head of the Holy Roman Empire, though not then Emperor , and heir to the Bohemian crown, was anxious to put an end to religious dissension within the Church.

To put an end to the papal schism and to take up the long desired reform of the Church, he arranged for a general council to convene on 1 November , at Konstanz Constance.

Hus, willing to make an end of all dissensions, agreed to go to Constance, under Sigismund's promise of safe conduct. It is not known whether Hus knew what his fate would be, but he made his will before setting out.

He started on his journey on 11 October , arriving in Constance on 3 November In the beginning, Hus was at liberty, under his safe conduct from Sigismund, and lived at the house of a widow.

But he continued celebrating Mass and preaching to the people, in violation of restrictions decreed by the Church. After a few weeks on 28 November , his opponents succeeded in imprisoning him, on the strength of a rumor that he intended to flee.

He was first brought into the residence of a canon and then, on 6 December , into the prison of the Dominican monastery. Sigismund, as the guarantor of Hus's safety, was greatly angered and threatened the prelates with dismissal; however, the prelates convinced him that he could not be bound by promises to a heretic.

As was common practice, witnesses for the prosecution were heard, but Hus was not allowed an advocate for his defense. Hus had been the captive of John XXIII and in constant communication with his friends, but now he was delivered to the bishop of Constance and brought to his castle, Gottlieben on the Rhine.

Here he remained for 73 days, separated from his friends, chained day and night, poorly fed, and ill. On 5 June , he was tried for the first time, and was transferred to a Franciscan monastery, where he spent the last weeks of his life.

Extracts from his works were read, and witnesses were heard. He refused all formulae of submission, but declared himself willing to recant if his errors should be proven to him from the Bible.

Hus conceded his veneration of Wycliffe, and said that he could only wish his soul might some time attain unto that place where Wycliffe's was.

On the other hand, he denied having defended Wycliffe's doctrine of The Lord's Supper or the forty-five articles; he had only opposed their summary condemnation.

King Sigismund admonished him to deliver himself up to the mercy of the council, as he did not desire to protect a heretic.

The danger of some of these doctrines to worldly power was explained to Sigismund to incite him against Hus. Hus again declared himself willing to submit if he could be convinced of errors.

This declaration was considered an unconditional surrender, and he was asked to confess:. He asked to be exempted from recanting doctrines which he had never taught; others, which the assembly considered erroneous, he was not willing to revoke; to act differently would be against his conscience.

These words found no favorable reception. After the trial on 8 June, several other attempts were purportedly made to induce him to recant, which he resisted.

The condemnation of Jan Hus took place on 6 July , in the presence of the assembly of the council in the cathedral.

After the High Mass and Liturgy, Hus was led into the church. The Bishop of Lodi then Giacomo Balardi Arrigoni delivered an oration on the duty of eradicating heresy; various theses of Hus and Wycliffe and a report of his trial were then read.

An Italian prelate pronounced the sentence of condemnation upon Hus and his writings. Hus protested, saying that even at this hour he did not wish anything but to be convinced from Scripture.

He fell upon his knees and asked God with a soft voice to forgive all his enemies. Then followed his degradation — he was dressed in priestly vestments and again asked to recant; again he refused.

With curses, Hus's ornaments were taken from him, his priestly tonsure was destroyed, and the sentence of the Church was pronounced, stripping him of all rights, and he was delivered to secular authorities.

Then a tall paper hat was put upon his head, with the inscription " Haeresiarcha " i. There was thus a large potential base of support for any church reform movement at a time when the authority of the papacy itself was discredited by the Western Schism.

From Hus was in charge of the chapel, which had become the centre of the growing national reform movement in Bohemia. He became increasingly absorbed in public preaching and eventually emerged as the popular leader of the movement.

Because the German masters had three votes and the Czech masters only one, the Germans easily outvoted the Czechs, and the 45 articles were henceforth regarded as a test of orthodoxy.

Wycliffe also declared the Scriptures to be the sole source of Christian doctrine. The two men returned completely changed in their theological views and became the principal opponents of the Reformers.

Thus, just when Hus had emerged at the forefront of the reform movement, he came into conflict with his former friends.

Since the Roman Catholic Church had been split by the Western Schism, during which the papal jurisdiction was divided between two popes.

The council had the support of the Czech masters at the University of Prague, whereas the German masters were opposed to it. The German masters, who carried a voting majority in university affairs, supported the archbishop, which so enraged King Wenceslas that in January he subverted the university constitution by granting the Czech masters three votes each and the Germans only one; the result was a mass emigration of the Germans from Prague to several German universities.

In the fall of Hus was elected rector of the now Czech-dominated university. The deposed popes, however, retained jurisdiction over portions of western Europe; thus, instead of two, there were three popes.

The archbishop and the higher clergy in Bohemia remained faithful to Gregory, whereas Hus and the reform party acknowledged the new pope. Despite his condemnation, Hus continued to preach at the Bethlehem Chapel and to teach at the University of Prague.

Their sale in Bohemia aroused general indignation but had been approved by King Wenceslas, who, as usual, shared in the proceeds.

Hus publicly denounced these indulgences before the university and, by so doing, lost the support of Wenceslas.

This was to prove fatal to him. In order to spare the city the consequences, Hus voluntarily left Prague in October He found refuge mostly in southern Bohemia in the castles of his friends, and during the next two years he engaged in feverish literary activity.

The most important of his treatises was De ecclesia The Church. He also wrote a large number of treatises in Czech and a collection of sermons entitled Postilla.

Genau das hat Thomas A. Andererseits sieht Hus es auch als seine N24 Online, die reformerische Bewegung argumentativ zu unterstützen. Jahrhundert wirkenden Reformatoren und besonders von Martin Luther, der die Veröffentlichung seiner Werke in Deutschland später mit einem eigenen Vorwort versieht. Juli hingerichtet. Nach Konstanz reiste er in der Hoffnung, die Kirche zu bekehren und zur Überwindung der Kirchenspaltung beizutragen.

Jan Hus
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